Postures Developed from Accomplished Posture, the development of posture practice took two main courses, according to their source: One from Siddhasana (Accomplished Posture) and the other from Padmasana (Lotus Position).
Siddhasana (Accomplished Posture) helps to conserve energy by directing Prana, helping to prepare for coming into meditation.
Postures Developed from Siddhasana
Many postures of heel-perineal, heel-anal and heel-abdominal arose from the Siddhasana (Accomplished Posture).
Happy and Lion Postures Developed from Accomplished Posture
An important development is the Happy (Ananda) Posture, in which the heel, right to the right and left to the left side, is set against the perineum, with the soles together and the toes extended in front.
This changed to the posterior-heel-perineal posture, in which the involved soles and toes are extended backward, and the heel is placed against the perineum. When the heel is placed opposite the perineum, the right heel on the left and the left heel on the right side of the perineum, it becomes the Lion Posture.
Liberated Adamantine Postures Developed
The Accomplished Posture itself is modified as follows:
- The left heel is placed on the root of the genitals instead of the perineum, and the right heel is placed on top of the left. It is also called Liberated Posture.
- Another such modification is to simply adopt the reverse leg position, i.e. the right heel presses the perineum and the left heel against the pubic bone and just above the genitals.
- In the third, the anterior folding of the legs is changed to the posterior folding and the feet are placed on the sides of the anus. These two forms of Siddhasana are also known as Adamantine Posture (Vajrasana).
Tortoise and Guarded Postures Developed
When the posture is so modified that the feet are placed in such a way that the ankles are placed against the anus, it is called Kurmasana (Tortoise Posture).
There is another modification in which the heels of the soles involved are placed against the pubic bone and just above the genitals. It is also called the Guarded Posture. This posture itself took on another form, in which the anus is placed on a joint of heels.
Frog and Abdominal Pressing Postures Developed
With the advent of new arrangement of the feet, two important postures evolved from Accomplished Posture.
- Frog Posture
- Abdominal Pressing Posture
Frog posture, in which the back leg-folding assumed in Vajrasana is maintained but is moved backwards, and the right toes touch the left.
Abdominal Pressing Posture, in which a kneeling position is assumed and the tops of the feet (instead of the soles) are joined from the ankles to the toes and the fibula sides of the feet are placed against the abdomen.
Great Trunk-Bend, Head-Knee, and Spinal-Stretch Postures Developed
Leg-stretch asanas are developed from Siddhasana.
The first development is the Great Trunk-Bend Posture, in which the heel of one foot is set against the perineum as in the Siddhasana and the other leg is extended, the body bent in the direction of the extended leg, and the big toe. The extended leg is held by the hands. It is specifically intended for breath control.
The next development is the Head-Knee Posture, in which the head is bent at the knee of the extended leg while the holds the toes of the same leg.
Finally, the Spinal-Stretch Posture is developed, in which both legs are fully extended, toes are held by the hands, and the head is bent at the knees.
Arm-leg, Foot-Head, Arm-head, Wing, and Bent-Head Wing Postures Developed
The Arm-leg and Foot-head postures also develop from the heel-perineum element of the Siddhasana.
Arm-head posture is a typical arm-leg posture in which the heel of one leg is placed against the perineum and the other leg is placed on the top of the arm on the same side.
Similarly, the Single Foot-head Posture is an example of a Foot-head posture, in which one leg is placed behind the neck, while the heel of the other leg is set against the perineum.
Arm-leg Posture and Foot-head Posture are translated into Four-Point Posture and Double Foot-Head Posture, respectively. In both these asanas, the heel-perineum factor is eliminated due to the changed position of the leg.
Both these asanas are further transformed into the Single Arm-Stand Posture and the Standing Single Foot-Head Posture, which have a leg raise factor but eliminate the heel-perineal factor by requiring standing on one leg.
Further variation of these two postures is done in their combination with head-knee postures in which the leg-raised factor is retained and the other leg is extended, the toes are grasped by the hands and the head is bent on the knee. These are called Wing Posture and Bent-Head Wing Posture.
Pillow and Noose Postures Developed
Single foot-head posture and double foot-head posture are transformed to Pillow posture and Noose posture respectively when they are executed in supine position. The key factor is single foot-neck lock in Pillow posture and double foot-neck lock in Noose posture.
Forward Head-Bend, Sideward Head-Bend, and Foot-Hand Postures Developed
The spinal-stretch posture transformed into the Forward head-bend posture, in which the legs are held apart, the toes-hold maintained, and the head bent on the floor.
This is further transformed to a Sideward head-bend posture, in which the toe-hold is removed, and the head is tilted sideward to the floor.
Both the Spinal-stretch and Forward head-bend postures are also practiced without a toe-hold. The forward trunk bend factor of the Spinal-stretch posture is carried over to a greater range in the Foot-hand posture.
Raised-legged, Knee-Touching Spine, Pillar, and Risen Right-angle Postures Developed
Raised-leg postures developed while sitting with legs stretched out from the Spinal-stretch posture.
The most important development is the Knee-touching spine pose, in which the legs are raised towards the head and the head is lowered to the knees.
In the final stage, this became the Pillar posture, in which the legs are raised vertically and straight to a point. Modified forms include a single leg raise in both a Raised-legged head-knee pose and Pillar Pose.
Another essential exercise developed from the spinal-stretch posture is the Risen Right-Angle Posture, in which the buttocks and extended legs are raised off the floor.
Kneeling, Bent-Head Adamantine, Camel, and Wheel Postures Developed
The adamantine posture became the supine adamantine posture, in which the trunk lean backwards to the floor.
When the hips are raised and the body is standing on the knees and toes, it is called Kneeling posture.
When the head is bent back towards the floor from a kneeling posture, it is called Bent-head adamantine posture.
When the backward bend is done partially with the support of the hand, it is called Camel pose.
The backward trunk-bend factor is taken up to a greater extent in the Back posture, in which the trunk is tilted back from a standing position and the ankles are grasped by the hands. The backward trunk-bend is further forward in Wheel posture. When the trunk leans backwards only horizontally, it is called Modified wheel posture.
Cobra, Bow, Locust, Swing, King-cobra, and scorpion Postures Developed
In the supine position, the backward trunk-bend is done in a Raised bow pose.
Several backward trunk-turning postures are developed even in the prone position. The most important ones are the Cobra pose, Bow pose, Locust pose and Swing pose. In the prone position, the backward trunk-bend is carried to the limit in a King-cobra posture.
In the inverted body position, the posterior trunk-turn is made in the modified scorpion pose and carried to the limit in the Scorpion pose.
Modified Tortoise and Rabbit Postures Developed
Several forward trunk-bend postures have been developed from the adamantine posture.
When the body extends, the arms bent forward and the forehead and hands touch the floor, it is called Modified tortoise pose.
The same action is also done with the kneeling posture. A forward trunk-bend is made with the head touching the floor in close contact, with the knees and ankles held with the hands in Rabbit pose.
Other Postures Developed
In the supine position, forward trunk-bend became trunk flexion and leg-raising became hip flexion and pelvis-raising. There is also a combination of trunk-hip flexion. The main trunk flexion poses are the spine posture and its variations.
Hip flexion postures are the Raised Leg Posture, the Sideward Leg-Motion Posture, and a few others. Plow pose is a specific pelvis raising pose.
Examples of trunk-hip flexion postures are the head-knee spine pose and the knee-touching spine pose.