Unlocking the Power of Multivitamins: A Guide on How to Choose the Right One

Multivitamins A Guide on How to Choose the Right One - SharpMuscle
24 min read

Choosing a multivitamin requires understanding your body’s unique needs, assessing your dietary habits, lifestyle, and health goals, and considering factors such as age, gender, and activity level.

Key nutrients include chromium, essential for converting amino acids into muscle, and B vitamins for post-exercise recovery. Also, prioritize multivitamins with high bioavailability and consider specialized formulas to align with your specific demands. A carefully chosen multivitamin can ensure daily nutritional insurance.

In our fast-paced lives, ensuring we receive all the essential nutrients can be challenging. Multivitamins serve as a safety net, bridging the gap on days when our diets fall short. However, not all multivitamins are created equal.

Let’s begin by understanding your body’s unique needs. In this guide, we’ll explore key considerations and highlight specific nutrients to look for in an effective multivitamin.

Understanding the Essentials: Chromium and B Vitamins

  1. Chromium’s Muscle-Boosting Magic: Research, such as a study conducted by the University of Maryland, reveals the potential benefits of chromium. This mineral plays a crucial role in converting amino acids into muscle, making it particularly valuable for individuals engaged in regular exercise. For optimal results, a daily intake of 200 micrograms of chromium is recommended. 1 2 3
  2. The B Vitamins’ Workout Recovery: Hard workouts can deplete your body’s reserves of B vitamins. Therefore, an ideal multivitamin should include substantial doses of vitamins B6 and B12. These vitamins play a pivotal role in energy metabolism and can aid in post-exercise recovery. Solaray Men’s Golden Multi-Vita-Min stands out as an example, offering megadoses of B6 and B12, alongside the added benefit of endurance-boosting zinc. 4 5 6

Choosing the Right Multivitamin

In the pursuit of optimal health, understanding your unique nutritional needs is the cornerstone of selecting the right multivitamin. This personalized approach involves a comprehensive assessment of various factors, ensuring that your chosen supplement aligns with your individual requirements.

Evaluate Your Nutritional Needs

Before selecting a multivitamin, assess your dietary habits, lifestyle, and specific health goals. Consider factors such as age, gender, and activity level to determine the nutrients your body requires in optimal amounts.

A Personalized Approach to Multivitamin Selection

The following approach not only addresses your specific nutrient deficiencies but also supports your overall well-being, paving the way for a healthier and more vibrant life.

1. Dietary Habits

Begin by reflecting on your dietary habits. Consider the types of foods you regularly consume, the balance of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), and the diversity of your diet. Are there specific food groups you may be unintentionally neglecting? Understanding your dietary patterns provides insights into potential nutrient gaps that a multivitamin can help address. 7

2. Lifestyle Factors

Your lifestyle plays a pivotal role in determining your nutritional needs. Are you frequently exposed to environmental stressors, such as pollution or hectic work schedules? Do you engage in regular physical activity or lead a more sedentary lifestyle? These aspects can impact your body’s demand for certain vitamins and minerals, influencing the type of multivitamin that may best complement your lifestyle. 8 9

3. Health Goals

Define your health goals clearly. Whether it’s boosting immune function, supporting cardiovascular health, or enhancing cognitive performance, each goal requires specific nutrients. Tailoring your multivitamin choice to these goals ensures that you receive targeted nutritional support. For example, if you’re aiming for improved cardiovascular health, a multivitamin rich in antioxidants like vitamins C and E may be beneficial. 10 11

4. Age and Gender Considerations

Age and gender are crucial factors that influence nutritional requirements. Different life stages demand varying levels of nutrients. For instance, women of childbearing age may need additional iron, while older adults may require more calcium and vitamin D for bone health. Understanding these nuances enables you to select a multivitamin that addresses the specific needs associated with your age and gender. 12

5. Activity Level

Assessing your activity level provides insights into energy expenditure and potential nutrient depletion due to physical exertion. Individuals engaged in regular exercise may require higher doses of certain vitamins, such as B-complex vitamins, to support energy metabolism and aid in muscle recovery. 13 Choosing a multivitamin that caters to your activity level ensures that you maintain peak performance and recover effectively after workouts.

Check the Nutrient Profile

In essence, checking the nutrient profile of a multivitamin is akin to reading the blueprint of a well-constructed building. The selection of vitamins and minerals, their concentrations, and the alignment with recommended values collectively determine the efficacy of the supplement. By embracing a holistic approach to nutrient intake, you pave the way for comprehensive support that nurtures your body from the inside out.

Unveiling the Comprehensive Spectrum

When embarking on the quest for the ideal multivitamin, a critical aspect lies in scrutinizing its nutrient profile. Look for those that cover a broad spectrum, including but not limited to vitamins A, C, D, E, and minerals like magnesium and zinc. Ensure the concentrations align with recommended daily values. 14

A premium multivitamin should function as a comprehensive nutritional powerhouse, delivering a well-rounded mix of essential vitamins and minerals that our bodies crave for optimal functioning. Let’s delve into the key components that should grace the nutrient profile of a top-tier multivitamin:

1. Vitamins: The Alphabet of Wellness

A robust multivitamin should encompass a diverse array of vitamins, each contributing uniquely to our well-being. Vitamins A, C, D, and E, often referred to as the “alphabet of wellness,” play pivotal roles in various bodily functions 15:

  • Vitamin A supports vision health 16
  • Vitamin C bolsters the immune system 17
  • Vitamin D aids in calcium absorption for bone health 18 19
  • Vitamin E acts as a powerful antioxidant, combating oxidative stress 20 21
2. Essential Minerals: The Foundation of Health

Minerals are the unsung heroes that form the foundation of our health. Magnesium, a mineral involved in over 300 biochemical reactions, supports muscle and nerve function, while zinc, a trace element, is crucial for immune function and wound healing. Ensuring the inclusion of these minerals in your multivitamin contributes to the holistic support your body deserves. 22 23

While a broad spectrum of nutrients is key, the concentrations within the multivitamin must align meticulously with the recommended daily values. Striking this balance ensures that you not only meet your nutritional needs, but do so without the risk of excessive intake, which can have unintended consequences. By adhering to established guidelines, you can trust that your multivitamin is tailored to support your health without tipping the delicate balance of nutrient intake. 24 25

4. Beyond the Basics: Tailoring to Individual Needs

Considerations beyond the essentials may come into play when evaluating nutrient profiles. Depending on your unique health goals, you might seek additional components such as omega-3 fatty acids for heart health or coenzyme Q10 for energy production. A multivitamin that goes beyond the basics allows for a more personalized approach, addressing individual nutritional requirements with precision. 26 27

ALSO READ:  Thyroid Diet Plan: Foods To Eat, Avoid, And Workout Plan

Bioavailability Matters

When choosing a multivitamin, delve into the intricacies of bioavailability. Opting for methylated B vitamins, exploring the benefits of absorption-enhancing compounds like piperine, and acknowledging the synergy between nutrients all contribute to ensuring that the multivitamin you choose is not only packed with essential nutrients but also designed to maximize their absorption and utilization within your body. This strategic approach sets the stage for a multivitamin that truly delivers on its promise of nutritional support. 28 29

Unlocking Nutrient Absorption

In the realm of nutrition, bioavailability is a pivotal concept that determines the effectiveness of nutrient absorption by our bodies. It refers to the extent and rate at which a substance, in this case, nutrients from multivitamins, is absorbed and utilized in the bloodstream. Choosing a multivitamin with high bioavailability is paramount to ensuring that your body reaps the maximum benefits from the supplemented nutrients.

1. Understanding Methylated B Vitamins

Not all nutrient forms are created equal, and this holds particularly true for B vitamins. Opting for multivitamins that feature methylated B vitamins is a wise choice. Methylated forms, such as methylcobalamin (B12) and methylfolate (B9), are already in a state that the body can readily use. This is especially beneficial for individuals with certain genetic variations that affect their ability to convert standard B vitamins into their active forms. Methylated B vitamins, therefore, ensure that everyone, regardless of their genetic makeup, can efficiently absorb and utilize these essential nutrients. 30 24 14

2. The Piperine Effect

Beyond selecting the right forms of vitamins, considering absorption-enhancing compounds can significantly boost bioavailability. One notable example is black pepper extract, known as piperine. This compound, derived from black pepper, has been shown to enhance the absorption of various nutrients, including vitamins and minerals. Piperine achieves this by inhibiting certain enzymes responsible for metabolizing nutrients in the digestive system. As a result, the concentration of these nutrients in the bloodstream increases, maximizing their availability for the body to utilize. 31 32

3. Synergy in Nutrient Absorption

Bioavailability isn’t just about individual nutrient forms; it also involves the intricate interplay between various compounds within a multivitamin. Some nutrients enhance the absorption of others, creating a synergistic effect. For instance, vitamin C is known to improve the absorption of non-heme iron, found in plant-based foods. A well-designed multivitamin takes these synergies into account, ensuring that the included nutrients work harmoniously to enhance overall bioavailability. 33 34

4. Beyond Absorption: Utilizing Nutrients Efficiently

While bioavailability primarily focuses on absorption, the efficient utilization of nutrients within the body is equally crucial. Nutrients must reach their target tissues and cells to exert their beneficial effects. Therefore, a high-quality multivitamin not only emphasizes bioavailability during absorption but also considers factors that facilitate the transport and utilization of these nutrients within the body. 35 36

Consider Specialized Formulas

Depending on your specific needs, you might benefit from specialized formulations. Some multivitamins cater to certain demographics, such as athletes, seniors, or vegetarians. These formulations may contain additional nutrients tailored to address unique requirements.

Tailoring Multivitamins to Unique Demands

In the realm of multivitamins, recognizing that one size does not fit all is paramount. Specialized formulations emerge as a beacon, finely tuned to cater to the unique nutritional demands of diverse demographics. Let’s delve deeper into why considering these targeted formulas can elevate your health regimen.

1. For the Active Enthusiasts – Athletes’ Arsenal

Athletes, with their heightened physical activity levels, demand a multivitamin that goes beyond the basics. Specialized formulations for athletes often incorporate increased doses of certain vitamins and minerals essential for energy production, muscle function, and recovery. 4 37

Look for added electrolytes, such as potassium and magnesium, to aid in maintaining hydration levels during intense workouts. 38 39

Additionally, antioxidants like vitamin C and E may be amplified to combat the oxidative stress associated with rigorous exercise, promoting optimal performance and faster recovery. 40 41

2. Nourishing the Golden Years – Seniors’ Support

As we age, our nutritional needs evolve, and specialized multivitamins for seniors are crafted with this in mind. These formulations frequently include higher levels of bone-strengthening nutrients like calcium and vitamin D to counteract age-related bone density loss. 42 43

Moreover, added B vitamins, particularly B12, support cognitive health, combating the natural decline in cognitive function that can accompany aging. 44 45 46

Look for multivitamins fortified with antioxidants to aid in protecting against cellular damage, promoting vitality in the golden years. 47 48

3. Vegetarian Vitality – Tailored for Plant-Based Lifestyles

For individuals embracing a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle, obtaining certain nutrients exclusively from plant sources can be challenging. Specialized multivitamins for vegetarians bridge this gap by providing ample amounts of crucial nutrients often found in animal products. 49 50

Look for formulations enriched with plant-based sources of omega-3 fatty acids, iron, vitamin B12, and zinc. These nutrients are vital for maintaining energy levels, supporting cognitive function, and preventing common deficiencies associated with plant-based diets. 51

4. Considerations for Pregnancy – Prenatal Precision

Pregnant individuals have distinct nutritional needs to support both their health and the development of the growing fetus. 52 53

Prenatal multivitamins are tailored to provide essential nutrients like folic acid, iron, and calcium in concentrations that support a healthy pregnancy. 54

Adequate folic acid is crucial for preventing neural tube defects, while iron combats the increased demand for blood production. 55 56

Calcium, on the other hand, supports the development of the baby’s bones and teeth. 57 12

Potential Risks and Side Effects

Embarking on a journey to enhance your well-being through multivitamins is undoubtedly a positive step, but, as with any health-related pursuit, understanding the potential risks and side effects is paramount.

  • Nutrient Overdose Concerns: Multivitamins are designed to supplement dietary gaps, yet consuming excessive amounts of certain vitamins and minerals can have unintended consequences. For instance, an overdose of fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E, and K can accumulate in the body, potentially reaching toxic levels. This emphasizes the importance of moderation and aligning your supplement intake with recommended daily values. 58
  • Interactions with Medications: It’s crucial to consider potential interactions between multivitamins and any medications you may be taking. Some vitamins and minerals can interfere with the absorption or effectiveness of certain medications. Consulting with a healthcare professional becomes crucial to ensure compatibility and prevent any unwanted interactions that might compromise your overall health. 59
  • Individual Sensitivities and Allergies: Multivitamins may contain additives, preservatives, or allergens that could trigger sensitivities or allergic reactions in certain individuals. Thoroughly reviewing the ingredients list and consulting with a healthcare provider can help identify and avoid potential allergens, ensuring a safe and comfortable supplementation experience. 60
  • Digestive Distress: Some individuals may experience digestive discomfort, such as nausea, bloating, or constipation, when taking multivitamins. This can be attributed to the formulation of the supplement or the sheer volume of nutrients ingested. Opting for multivitamins with high bioavailability and considering time-released formulations may help mitigate digestive issues. 61 62 58
  • Impact on Pre-Existing Health Conditions: Individuals with pre-existing health conditions, such as kidney disorders or certain metabolic issues, need to exercise caution when selecting a multivitamin. Certain vitamins and minerals, when consumed in excess, can exacerbate these conditions. A personalized approach, guided by a healthcare professional, is essential to tailor supplementation to individual health needs. 63 64
  • Quality and Contamination Concerns: Not all supplements are created equal, and the quality of multivitamins can vary. In some cases, supplements may be contaminated with impurities or substances not listed on the label. Choosing reputable brands, seeking third-party testing certifications, and consulting healthcare professionals can help ensure the quality and purity of the multivitamin you choose.
ALSO READ:  Intensity and Focus: Your Two Secret Weapons


Choosing the right multivitamin is a significant step toward optimal health. By understanding the importance of key nutrients, considering bioavailability, and being mindful of potential risks, you can make an informed decision. Remember, this guide serves as a foundation; consulting with a healthcare professional and incorporating external sources can further enhance your journey to a healthier and more vibrant life.


  1. Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, Cooke M, Earnest CP, Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Kerksick CM, Kleiner SM, Leutholtz B, Lopez H, Lowery LM, Mendel R, Smith A, Spano M, Wildman R, Willoughby DS, Ziegenfuss TN, Antonio J. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010;7:7.[]
  2. Tscholl P, Alonso JM, Dollé G, Junge A, Dvorak J. “The use of drugs and nutritional supplements in top-level track and field athletes.” Am J Sports Med. 2010 Jan;38(1):133-40. doi: 10.1177/0363546509344071. Epub 2009 Oct 7. PMID: 19812387.[]
  3. Khodavirdipour A, Haddadi F, Keshavarzi S. “Chromium Supplementation; Negotiation with Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperlipidemia and Depression.” J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2020 Mar 5;19(1):585-595. doi: 10.1007/s40200-020-00501-8. PMID: 32550211; PMCID: PMC7270423.[]
  4. Brancaccio M, Mennitti C, Cesaro A, Fimiani F, Vano M, Gargiulo B, Caiazza M, Amodio F, Coto I, D’Alicandro G, Mazzaccara C, Lombardo B, Pero R, Terracciano D, Limongelli G, Calabrò P, D’Argenio V, Frisso G, Scudiero O. “The Biological Role of Vitamins in Athletes’ Muscle, Heart and Microbiota.” Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 23;19(3):1249. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19031249. PMID: 35162272; PMCID: PMC8834970.[][]
  5. Woolf K, Manore MM. “B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements?” Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Oct;16(5):453-84. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.16.5.453. PMID: 17240780.[]
  6. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research; Marriott BM, editor. Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1993. 8, “The Effect of Exercise and Heat on Vitamin Requirements.” Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236216.[]
  7. Ward E. “Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements.” Nutr J. 2014 Jul 15;13:72. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-72. PMID: 25027766; PMCID: PMC4109789.[]
  8. Farhud DD. “Impact of Lifestyle on Health. Iran J Public Health.” 2015 Nov;44(11):1442-4. PMID: 26744700; PMCID: PMC4703222. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4703222.[]
  9. Park JH, Moon JH, Kim HJ, Kong MH, Oh YH. “Sedentary Lifestyle: Overview of Updated Evidence of Potential Health Risks.” Korean J Fam Med. 2020 Nov;41(6):365-373. doi: 10.4082/kjfm.20.0165. Epub 2020 Nov 19. PMID: 33242381; PMCID: PMC7700832.[]
  10. Sunkara A, Raizner A. “Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment.” Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2019 Jul-Sep;15(3):179-184. doi: 10.14797/mdcj-15-3-179. PMID: 31687096; PMCID: PMC6822653.[]
  11. Sesso HD, Christen WG, Bubes V, Smith JP, MacFadyen J, Schvartz M, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Gaziano JM. “Multivitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial.” JAMA. 2012 Nov 7;308(17):1751-60. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.14805. PMID: 23117775; PMCID: PMC3501249.[]
  12. Brown LL, Cohen BE, Edwards E, Gustin CE, Noreen Z. “Physiological Need for Calcium, Iron, and Folic Acid for Women of Various Subpopulations During Pregnancy and Beyond.” J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021 Feb;30(2):207-211. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2020.8873. Epub 2020 Nov 9. PMID: 33164624; PMCID: PMC8020528.[][]
  13. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research; Marriott BM, editor. Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1993. 8, “The Effect of Exercise and Heat on Vitamin Requirements.” Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236216.[]
  14. Tardy AL, Pouteau E, Marquez D, Yilmaz C, Scholey A. “Vitamins and Minerals for Energy, Fatigue and Cognition: A Narrative Review of the Biochemical and Clinical Evidence.” Nutrients. 2020 Jan 16;12(1):228. doi: 10.3390/nu12010228. PMID: 31963141; PMCID: PMC7019700.[][]
  15. DEAD DOCTORS DON’T LIE” Dr. Joel Wallach & Dr. Ma Lan Wellness Publications LLC. P.O. Box 1812, Bonita, CA 91908 800/755-4656 (ph.) 619/420-2456 (fax) www.drjwallach.com [email protected] Other books by Dr. Joel Wallach & Dr. Ma Lan Rare Earths: forbidden Cures Let’s Play Doctor Let’s Play Herbal Doctor God Bless America Dead Doctors Don’t Lie[]
  16. Sajovic J, Meglič A, Glavač D, Markelj Š, Hawlina M, Fakin A. “The Role of Vitamin A in Retinal Diseases.” Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 18;23(3):1014. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031014. PMID: 35162940; PMCID: PMC8835581.[]
  17. Carr AC, Maggini S. “Vitamin C and Immune Function.” Nutrients. 2017 Nov 3;9(11):1211. doi: 10.3390/nu9111211. PMID: 29099763; PMCID: PMC5707683.[]
  18. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important for Bone Health. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Available from: https://www.niams.nih.gov/print/view/pdf/advanced_reading_pdf_/advanced.[]
  19. Khazai N, Judd SE, Tangpricha V. “Calcium and vitamin D: skeletal and extraskeletal health.” Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2008 Apr;10(2):110-7. doi: 10.1007/s11926-008-0020-y. PMID: 18460265; PMCID: PMC2669834.[]
  20. Rizvi S, Raza ST, Ahmed F, Ahmad A, Abbas S, Mahdi F. “The role of vitamin e in human health and some diseases.” Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2014 May;14(2):e157-65. Epub 2014 Apr 7. PMID: 24790736; PMCID: PMC3997530.[]
  21. Niki E. “Evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin E.” Korean J Intern Med. 2015 Sep;30(5):571-9. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2015.30.5.571. Epub 2015 Aug 27. PMID: 26354050; PMCID: PMC4578028.[]
  22. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. “Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride.” Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.[]
  23. Fiorentini D, Cappadone C, Farruggia G, Prata C. “Magnesium: Biochemistry, Nutrition, Detection, and Social Impact of Diseases Linked to Its Deficiency.” Nutrients. 2021 Mar 30;13(4):1136. doi: 10.3390/nu13041136. PMID: 33808247; PMCID: PMC8065437.[]
  24. Kennedy DO. “B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review.” Nutrients. 2016 Jan 27;8(2):68. doi: 10.3390/nu8020068. PMID: 26828517; PMCID: PMC4772032.[][]
  25. Blumberg JB, Bailey RL, Sesso HD, Ulrich CM. “The Evolving Role of Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement Use among Adults in the Age of Personalized Nutrition.” Nutrients. 2018 Feb 22;10(2):248. doi: 10.3390/nu10020248. PMID: 29470410; PMCID: PMC5852824.[]
  26. Mondal DD, Chakraborty U, Bera M, Ghosh S, Kar D. “An overview of nutritional profiling in foods: Bioanalytical techniques and useful protocols.” Front Nutr. 2023 Mar 21;10:1124409. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1124409. PMID: 37025612; PMCID: PMC10070841.[]
  27. Picó C, Serra F, Rodríguez AM, Keijer J, Palou A. “Biomarkers of Nutrition and Health: New Tools for New Approaches.” Nutrients. 2019 May 16;11(5):1092. doi: 10.3390/nu11051092. PMID: 31100942; PMCID: PMC6567133.[]
  28. Yang, P.; Wang, H.; Li, L.; Zhang, N.; Ma, Y. “Determination and Evaluation of Bioavailability of Vitamins from Different Multivitamin Supplements Using a Pig Model.” Agriculture 202111, 418. do: 10.3390/agriculture11050418.[]
  29. Yetley EA. “Multivitamin and multimineral dietary supplements: definitions, characterization, bioavailability, and drug interactions.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):269S-276S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/85.1.269S. PMID: 17209208.[]
  30. Hanna M, Jaqua E, Nguyen V, Clay J. “B Vitamins: Functions and Uses in Medicine.” Perm J. 2022 Jun 29;26(2):89-97. doi: 10.7812/TPP/21.204. Epub 2022 Jun 17. PMID: 35933667; PMCID: PMC9662251.[]
  31. Srinivasan K. “Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects.” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(8):735-48. doi: 10.1080/10408390601062054. PMID: 17987447.[]
  32. Fernández-Lázaro D, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Córdova Martínez A, Seco-Calvo J. “Iron and Physical Activity: Bioavailability Enhancers, Properties of Black Pepper (Bioperine®) and Potential Applications.” Nutrients. 2020 Jun 24;12(6):1886. doi: 10.3390/nu12061886. PMID: 32599787; PMCID: PMC7353321.[]
  33. Jacobs DR Jr, Gross MD, Tapsell LC. “Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1543S-1548S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736B. Epub 2009 Mar 11. PMID: 19279083; PMCID: PMC2731586.[]
  34. Lynch SR, Cook JD. “Interaction of vitamin C and iron.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;355:32-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21325.x. PMID: 6940487.[]
  35. Munteanu C, Schwartz B. “The relationship between nutrition and the immune system.” Front Nutr. 2022 Dec 8;9:1082500. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.1082500. PMID: 36570149; PMCID: PMC9772031.[]
  36. Ryan KK, Seeley RJ. Physiology. “Food as a hormone.” Science. 2013 Feb 22;339(6122):918-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1234062. PMID: 23430646; PMCID: PMC4240228.[]
  37. Tscholl P, Alonso JM, Dollé G, Junge A, Dvorak J. “The use of drugs and nutritional supplements in top-level track and field athletes.” Am J Sports Med. 2010 Jan;38(1):133-40. doi: 10.1177/0363546509344071. Epub 2009 Oct 7. PMID: 19812387.[]
  38. Jung AP, Bishop PA, Al-Nawwas A, Dale RB. “Influence of Hydration and Electrolyte Supplementation on Incidence and Time to Onset of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps.” J Athl Train. 2005 Jun;40(2):71-75. PMID: 15970952; PMCID: PMC1150229.[]
  39. Shrimanker I, Bhattarai S. Electrolytes. [Updated 2023 Jul 24]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541123.[]
  40. Higgins MR, Izadi A, Kaviani M. “Antioxidants and Exercise Performance: With a Focus on Vitamin E and C Supplementation.” Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Nov 15;17(22):8452. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17228452. PMID: 33203106; PMCID: PMC7697466.[]
  41. Clemente-Suárez VJ, Bustamante-Sanchez Á, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Martínez-Guardado I, Martín-Rodríguez A, Tornero-Aguilera JF. “Antioxidants and Sports Performance.” Nutrients. 2023 May 18;15(10):2371. doi: 10.3390/nu15102371. PMID: 37242253; PMCID: PMC10220679.[]
  42. Office of the Surgeon General (US). “Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General.” Rockville (MD): Office of the Surgeon General (US); 2004. 6, “Determinants of Bone Health.” Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45503.[]
  43. Sunyecz JA. “The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis.” Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Aug;4(4):827-36. doi: 10.2147/tcrm.s3552. PMID: 19209265; PMCID: PMC2621390.[]
  44. Behrens A, Graessel E, Pendergrass A, Donath C. “Vitamin B-Can it prevent cognitive decline? A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Syst Rev. 2020 May 15;9(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s13643-020-01378-7. PMID: 32414424; PMCID: PMC7229605.[]
  45. Li S, Guo Y, Men J, Fu H, Xu T. “The preventive efficacy of vitamin B supplements on the cognitive decline of elderly adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” BMC Geriatr. 2021 Jun 16;21(1):367. doi: 10.1186/s12877-021-02253-3. PMID: 34134667; PMCID: PMC8207668.[]
  46. []
  47. Mathew MC, Ervin AM, Tao J, Davis RM. “Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jun 13;6(6):CD004567. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004567.pub2. PMID: 22696344; PMCID: PMC4410744.[]
  48. Thomas DR. “Vitamins in aging, health, and longevity.” Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(1):81-91. doi: 10.2147/ciia.2006.1.1.81. PMID: 18047260; PMCID: PMC2682456.[]
  49. Niklewicz A, Smith AD, Smith A, Holzer A, Klein A, McCaddon A, Molloy AM, Wolffenbuttel BHR, Nexo E, McNulty H, Refsum H, Gueant JL, Dib MJ, Ward M, Murphy M, Green R, Ahmadi KR, Hannibal L, Warren MJ, Owen PJ; CluB-12. “The importance of vitamin B12 for individuals choosing plant-based diets.” Eur J Nutr. 2023 Apr;62(3):1551-1559. doi: 10.1007/s00394-022-03025-4. Epub 2022 Dec 5. PMID: 36469110; PMCID: PMC10030528.[]
  50. Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F. “Vitamin B₁₂-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.” Nutrients. 2014 May 5;6(5):1861-73. doi: 10.3390/nu6051861. PMID: 24803097; PMCID: PMC4042564.[]
  51. Craig WJ, Mangels AR, Fresán U, Marsh K, Miles FL, Saunders AV, Haddad EH, Heskey CE, Johnston P, Larson-Meyer E, Orlich M. “The Safe and Effective Use of Plant-Based Diets with Guidelines for Health Professionals.” Nutrients. 2021 Nov 19;13(11):4144. doi: 10.3390/nu13114144. PMID: 34836399; PMCID: PMC8623061.[]
  52. Marangoni F, Cetin I, Verduci E, Canzone G, Giovannini M, Scollo P, Corsello G, Poli A. “Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document.” Nutrients. 2016 Oct 14;8(10):629. doi: 10.3390/nu8100629. PMID: 27754423; PMCID: PMC5084016.[]
  53. Jouanne M, Oddoux S, Noël A, Voisin-Chiret AS. “Nutrient Requirements during Pregnancy and Lactation.” Nutrients. 2021 Feb 21;13(2):692. doi: 10.3390/nu13020692. PMID: 33670026; PMCID: PMC7926714.[]
  54. Oh C, Keats EC, Bhutta ZA. “Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation During Pregnancy on Maternal, Birth, Child Health and Development Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Nutrients. 2020 Feb 14;12(2):491. doi: 10.3390/nu12020491. PMID: 32075071; PMCID: PMC7071347.[]
  55. Greenberg JA, Bell SJ, Guan Y, Yu YH. “Folic Acid supplementation and pregnancy: more than just neural tube defect prevention.” Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Summer;4(2):52-9. PMID: 22102928; PMCID: PMC3218540.[]
  56. Merrell BJ, McMurry JP. “Folic Acid.” [Updated 2023 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554487.[]
  57. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. 2, “Overview of Calcium.” Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56060.[]
  58. Ronis MJJ, Pedersen KB, Watt J. “Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.” Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018 Jan 6;58:583-601. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052844. Epub 2017 Oct 6. PMID: 28992429; PMCID: PMC6380172.[][]
  59. D’Alessandro C, Benedetti A, Di Paolo A, Giannese D, Cupisti A. “Interactions between Food and Drugs, and Nutritional Status in Renal Patients: A Narrative Review.” Nutrients. 2022 Jan 4;14(1):212. doi: 10.3390/nu14010212. PMID: 35011087; PMCID: PMC8747252.[]
  60. Foti C, Calogiuri G, Nettis E, De Marco A, Stingeni L, Hansel K, Di Bona D, Carlucci P, Romita P, Barbaud A. “Allergic contact dermatitis from vitamins: A systematic review.” Health Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 3;5(6):e766. doi: 10.1002/hsr2.766. PMID: 36210883; PMCID: PMC9528950.[]
  61. Kaewrudee S, Kietpeerakool C, Pattanittum P, Lumbiganon P. “Vitamin or mineral supplements for premenstrual syndrome.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 18;2018(1):CD012933. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012933. PMCID: PMC6491313.[]
  62. Anastasi JK, Capili B, Chang M. “Managing irritable bowel syndrome.” Am J Nurs. 2013 Jul;113(7):42-52; quiz 54, 53. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000431911.65473.35. PMID: 23764698; PMCID: PMC5654469.[]
  63. Darnton-Hill I. “Public Health Aspects in the Prevention and Control of Vitamin Deficiencies.” Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun 21;3(9):nzz075. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz075. PMID: 31598578; PMCID: PMC6775441.[]
  64. Holeček M. “Side effects of amino acid supplements.” Physiol Res. 2022 Mar 25;71(1):29-45. doi: 10.33549/physiolres.934790. Epub 2022 Jan 19. PMID: 35043647; PMCID: PMC8997670.[]
ALSO READ:  VersaClimber (Vertical Climber): Technique, Benefits and Common Mistakes

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Discover more from SharpMuscle

Subscribe now to keep reading and get access to the full archive.

Continue reading

Scroll to Top